Options for Post-Election Conflict Resolution in Africa
Elections in most emerging democracies are generally characterised by irregularities which in turn fuel violent and non-violent expressions of displeasure before, during and after the voting excise. This paper discusses options for post-election conflict resolution with focus on African experiences since 2000. The paper holds that political and nonpolitical, local and international actors, play a dire role in ensuring that election-related insecurities are at least pacified. The paper assessed the constitutional, political and diplomatic alternatives to post- election conflict resolution. The paper goes further to examine the challenges that faced by African states in their exertion to deal with post-election conflicts. The study provides recommendations to inform the successes of the he post-election conflict resolutions in Africa. This paper establishes that most African states have lucrative legal frameworks on conducting elections and dealing with post-election unfortunate eventualities, the most compromise comes from, however, lack of political will and respect for the municipal ad international regulations. Furthermore, the paper realises that the continent, in some cases, lacks capacity and effectiveness on policy implementation to enforce electoral outcome or court rulings.
J. Siegle, and C. Cook, Assessing Africa’s 2020 Elections. Spotlight, 2020. [Online]. Available: https:// africacenter.org/spotlight/highlights-africa-2020-elections/. [Accessed: April. 29, 2020].
J. Madzimre, and F. Machivenyika, Just in: President Launches POLAD. The Herald, 2018. [Online]. Available: https:// www.herald.co.zw/just-in-president-launches-polad/. [Accessed: September. 13, 2020].
O. J. Adeagbo, and J. M. Iyi, “Post-Election Crisis in Kenya and Internally Displaced Persons: A Critical Appraisal,” Journal of Politics and Law, vol. 4, no. 2, 2011.
HRW, “They Killed Them like It Was Nothing” The Need for Justice for Côte d’Ivoire’s Post-Election Crimes, 2011. [Online]. Available: https:// www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/ cdi1011WebUpload.pdf. [Accessed: September. 30, 2020]
U. E. Daxecker, “The cost of exposing cheating: International election monitoring, fraud, and postelection violence in Africa,” Journal of Peace Research, pp. 1–15, 2012.
E. Toros and S. Birch, “Who are the Targets of Familial Electoral Coercion?,” Evidence from Turkey, Democratisation, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1342-1361, 2019.
M. Al-Musbeh, Managing Elections: Definition and Classification of Elections Management Bodies. 2011. [Online]. Available: Blessing/Downloads/SSRN-id2271279-libre.pdf. [Accessed: May. 04, 2020].
K. K. Klomegah, “ECOWAS Recognises Guinea-Bissau’s Presidential Election,” Modern Diplomacy, 2020.
O. Kaaba, “The challenges of adjudicating presidential election disputes in domestic courts in Africa,” African Human Rights Law Journal, no. 15, pp. 329-354, 2015. [Online]. Available: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/328829899_The_Challenges_of_Adjudicating_Presidential_Election_Disputes_in_Domestic_Courts_in_Africa. [Accessed: September. 1, 2020].
L. Herik, “An Inquiry into the Role of Commissions of Inquiry in International Law: Navigating the Tensions between Fact-Finding and Application of International Law,” Chinese Journal of International Law, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 507-537, 2014.
UN, Commissions of Inquiry and Fact-Finding Missions on International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law: Guidance and Practice, 2015. [Online]. Available: https:// www.ohchr.org/ Documents/Publications/CoI_Guidance_and_Practice.pdf. [Accessed: March. 29, 2020].
I. Mendes, “Inclusion and Political Representation in Peace Negotiations: The Case of the Colombian Victims’ Delegations,” Journal of Politics in Latin America, vol. 1, no. 26, 2020.
M. Nilsson, “Civil society actors in peace negotiations in Central America,” Journal of Civil Society, pp. 1-18, 2018. [Online]. Available: https:// doi.org/10.1080/17448689.2018.1484004. [Accessed: September. 03, 2020].
T. Paffenholz, What Makes or Breaks National Dialogues? Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative. Geneva, 2017.
N. Cheeseman, the Internal Dynamics of Power-Sharing in Africa. Democratisation. Vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 336-365, 2011. [Online]. Available: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/ 232951768_The_internal_dynamics_of_power-sharing_in_Africa. [Accessed: April. 9, 2020].
M. Cammett and E. Malesky, “Power Sharing in Post-conflict Societies: Implications for Peace and Governance,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1-35, 2012. [Online]. Available: https:// www.researchgate.net/deref/http%3A%2F%2Fjcr.sagepub.com%2Fcontent% 2Fearly%2F2012%2F07%2F13%2F0022002711421593. [Accessed: September. 13, 2020].
C. Hartmann, “ECOWAS and the Restoration of Democracy in the Gambia,” in. Africa Spectrum, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 85–99, 2017.
E. S. Poupko, an Exploratory Study of Constitutional Design in Three Island States: Seychelles, Comoros, and Mauritius. 2017. [Online]. Available: https:// pdfs.semanticscholar. org/20a5/e0f88259c5ecd228bd0976b5b39c8bfc5d66.pdf. [Accessed: April. 17, 2020].
D. A. Daniel and U. Enweremadu, “Potency of ECOWAS mission strategy in resolving electoral conflict in West Africa: A case of Côte d’Ivoire,” African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 22-32, 2020.
M. A. C. Clancy, and J. Nagle, “Frozen Conflicts, Minority Self-Governance, Asymmetrical Autonomies In search of a framework for conflict management and conflict resolution,” Paper to the 6th Asia-Europe Roundtable, Londonderry/Derry, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1-27, June 2009.
G. Mosashvili, Frozen conflicts in Moldova and Georgia. Paper to the European Student Conference, 2019.
Y. Babych, The International Spillover Effects of Political Transitions. Georgia: Tbilisi State University, 2017.
M. Wiebusch and C. Murray, “Presidential Term Limits and the African Union,” Journal of African Law, pp. 1-17, 2018.
J. Horowitz, Kenya’s Experience with Power-Sharing. Dartmouth College, 2013. [Online]. Available: https:// cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/sites.dartmouth.edu/dist/9/452/files/2016/08/Kenya -Power-Sharing-Oct-16-2013.pdf. [Accessed: September. 9, 2020].
L. Helms, “Leadership succession in politics: The democracy/autocracy divide revisited,” The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 328-346, 2020. [Online]. Available: https:// doi.org/10.1177/1369148120908528. [Accessed: September. 9, 2020].
U. Daxecker, “Unequal votes, unequal violence: Malapportionment and election violence in India,” Journal of Peace Research, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 503–516, 2019.
P. Rao, “Gambia’s democracy survives political turbulence: Peaceful transfer of power trending on the continent,” Africa Renewal, May – July 2017.